In this paper the author has suggested innovative design of bamboo reinforced pre-cast concrete composite column. Considering the strength properties of bamboo, an attempt is made to investigate and compare theoretical axial load carrying capacities of bamboo reinforced concrete composite ( BRCC) hollow circular columns with conventional steel reinforced concrete columns having same circular cross section. BRCC hollow circular columns of type I, II, III, IV and V having internal diameters 100 mm, 125 mm, 150mm, 175 mm and 150 mm respectively are considered for analysis. The axial capacities of BRCC columns of type I to III and IV to V have axial load carrying capacities 1.2 times and 1.1 times more than those of conventional columns respectively as given by working stress method. The ultimate load capacities of all BRCC columns are nearly equal to those of conventional columns. Cost comparison between BRCC columns and conventional columns is also presented. Research and testing on prototypes of such columns is needed in finding the effect of various parameters involved in the determination of ultimate capacities of these columns.
Most of the Indians (87.2%) live below the poverty line and since the population is on the rise the demand of basic needs increases. Engineer's role is to provide the best facilities at optimum cost. And as such Concrete is the most consumed construction material in the entire world because of its various advantages such as low cost, availability, easy to mould, good compressive strength, fire resistance etc. But it cannot be used alone because of its low tensile strength. And therefore it is usually reinforced with steel which is very strong in tension. Due to the increasing cost, unavailability and other drawbacks of the steel, it become necessary to use an alternative material as reinforcement. Bamboo which is abundantly available renewable material is used as a construction material from the earlier times due to its eco-friendly, advantageous, economical and versatile properties. As it is good in tension and bending properties it has drawn the attention of researchers to use it as reinforcement in cement concrete for low cost constructions.
Different multinational companies and organizations usually store data in internal storage and install firewalls to protect against intruders to access the data. They also standardize data access procedures to prevent insiders to disclose the information without permission. In cloud computing, the data will be stored in storage provided by service providers. Service providers must have a viable way to protect their client’s data, especially to prevent the data from disclosure by unauthorized insiders. Storing the data in encrypted form is a common method of information privacy protection. If a cloud system is responsible for both tasks on storage and encryption/decryption of data, the system administrators may simultaneously obtain encrypted data and decryption keys. This allows them to access information without authorization and thus poses a risk to information privacy. This study proposes a CRM model for cloud computing based on the concept of separating the encryption and decryption service from the storage service. Furthermore, the party responsible for the data storage system must not store data in plaintext, and the party responsible for data encryption and decryption must delete all data upon the computation on encryption or decryption is complete. A CRM (Customer Relationship Management) service is described in this paper as an example to illustrate the proposed business model. The exemplary service utilizes three cloud systems, including an encryption and decryption system, a storage system, and a CRM application system. One service provider operates the encryption and decryption system while other providers operate the storage and application systems, according to the core concept of the proposed business model. This paper further includes suggestions for multi-party Service-Level Agreement.
The industrial sector is second largest energy sector in India, after the residential sector one of the key energy using industries such as Textile (Finishing),Textile (Spinning and weaving) have a significant requirement for low-medium temperature heat as steam, hot water, hot air and hot oil. This low-medium temperature heat is primarily provided by fuel, oil, coal, biomass and electricity. By and large, India has a strong solar energy potential of around 5.7 kWh/m2/day. A significant part of India’s low-medium temperature process heat needs can be met by Flat plate collector (FPC), Evacuated tube collector (ETC) and Solar concentrator technology system along side process integration and suitable heat storage. This would reduce global CO2 emission, local air pollution and India’s growing dependence on expensive imported oil. Present paper emphasizes in the adoption of solar energy for Textile sector. The textile sector is one the largest and oldest sectors in the country’s economy and amongst the most important in terms of output, investment and employment.
Friction surfacing is a relatively new technology which is capable of producing coatings with zero dilution and good metallurgical bonding. This is attained because no melting is involved in this process. Friction surfacing is a solid state deposition process for producing wear and corrosion resistant coatings on metallic surfaces, which involves a rotating rod pushed against a horizontally moving plate. The rotating rod is the coating material and the plate is the substrate. Friction stir welding is a solid-state joining process that has gained acceptable progress in recent years. This method which was first used for welding of aluminum and its alloys is now employed for welding of other materials such as polymers and composites. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process in which the relative motion between the tool and the work piece produces heat which makes the material of two edges being joined by plastic atomic diffusion.
Pulsating heat pipes (PHPs) are an interesting class of passive two-phase heat transfer systems incorporating self-excited thermally driven oscillations for achieving a high rate of heat transfer. While many applications of PHPs have emerged, a systematic analysis of heat exchangers based on this technology has not been reported. In this work the experimental set up has 144 turns of capillary tube of diameter 1.5 mm and working fluids used are water and ethanol with constant filling ratio of 50% for each working fluid. The hot water inlet temperature was 40oC, 50oC and 60oC and cold water temperature was constant at 26oC. It is observed that the heat output is increases with increasing the hot water inlet temperature and thermal resistance decreases with increase in heat input, minimum thermal resistance for ethanol as working fluid is 0.15oC/W at 160W and for water it is 0.17oC/W at same heat input. Effectiveness depends on inlet temperature. The maximum effectiveness is for ethanol at 60oC and it is 0.55 and for water it is 0.5 at same temperature.
A Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe (CLPHP) is a self-excited thermally driven two phase passive heat transfer device, which transfers heat from one location to another with a negligible temperature drop. Its operation depends on the phase change of a working fluid within the loop. In this paper, experimental study on a vertical closed loop pulsating heat pipe (PHP) has been conducted having 50% filling ratio(FR). The heat power was supplied from 8 W to 96 W, in the steps of 8 W. The thermal performance is measured in terms of thermal resistance. The work explores the thermal performance of a PHP working with an azeotropic mixture of water (4.5% wt.) and ethanol (95.5% wt.) in comparison to pure ethanol and water. The various temperatures were recorded on the outer wall of the evaporator and condenser section. Overall thermal resistance at different heat inputs was calculated. It is concluded that, the thermal resistance decreases more rapidly with the increase of the heat Input power. No measurable difference has been recorded for the PHP running with azeotropic mixture of ethanol (95.5% wt.) and water (4.5% wt.) in comparison with pure ethanol, in terms of overall thermal resistance.
Engine mounts have an important function of containing firmly the power-train components of a vehicle. Correct geometry and positioning of the mount brackets on the chassis ensures a good ride quality and performance. As an FSAE car intends to be a high performance vehicle, the brackets on the frame that support the engine undergo high static and dynamic stresses as well as huge amount of vibrations. Hence, dissipating the vibrational energy and keeping the stresses under a pre- determined level of safety should be achieved by careful designing and analysis of the mount brackets. Keeping this in mind the current paper discusses the modelling, FEA, Modal analysis and mass optimization of engine mount brackets for a FSAE car. As the brackets tend to undergo continuous vibrations and varying stresses, the fatigue strength and durability calculations also have been done for engine safety.
When people want to go at high floors of the building, they prefer lift instead of stairs. In high rise building Elevator Grouped Control System EGCS can be used as a vertical transportation facility to the passengers to travel from one floor to another floor. EGCS effectively manages multiple elevators or lifts. Proposed dynamic scheduling of grouped elevator control system attempts the up and down landing calls to minimize the waiting time of passengers. Proposed system controls multiple elevators efficiently depending on various parameters such as waiting time of passengers; percentage of waits for longer time, up floor traffic and down floor traffic .this paper compares different techniques used to schedule elevators in a group elevator system.