The objective of this research project is to study the buckling behaviour of cold formed steel compression members under concentrated loading condition for different lengths and sections. Compression capacities of C-shaped cold formed steel sections with lips and without lips are calculated by Indian standard design methods. Effect of change in geometric property on compression capacity of a section and comparison is carried out under the action of concentrated loading.
As the world today is increasingly using the information through the various electronic medium of information interchange there is a need to come up with some ways to better the quality of such medium. Websites are not only limited to desktop application but now more than that they are increasingly been used via the handheld medium. Hence a completely new perspective in the way one thinks about the quality of the website and its performance is seen. Though we are only focusing ourselves on the desktop versions of the websites. With a full understanding of the fact that, for improving the performance of website and link navigation we intend to combine various methods to come up with a unique solution. Such an approach is thus part of this work.
Bacterial concrete is a concrete which can be made by embedding bacteria into the concrete so that it could continuously precipitate calcium carbonate. This phenomenon is called Microbiologically Induced Calcite Precipitation (MICP). The research on this concept till date has been done on cement mortar; current study will focus on effect of bacteria on Concrete specimens. An attempt has been made to investigate the structural performance of bacteria by repairing the surface cracks and its effectiveness in increasing the compressive strength of concrete. In this study, a common soil bacterium name Bacillus Pasteurii is used. The organism was cultured in Nutrient Broth. The total viable count of colony forming units was noted as Bacteria per ml of solution. After referring the literature, it was decided to take concentrations 108 cells/ml and the culture was nurtured accordingly. Cubes of size 150 mm were planned and a total 6 cubes were cast. The 3 cubes were cast without any addition of bacterial culture whereas the 3 cubes were casted by adding bacterial culture. The required volume of bacterial solution was calculated and the same was added during casting. Bacterial solution was delivered in 2 flasks of 1000 ml. Curing for bacterial specimens was done in a tank filled with Nutrient Broth and Urea – CaCl2. The bacteria require a calcium rich environment in order to undergo calcite precipitation on its surface. The cell body of bacteria acts as a nucleation site. The testing of cubes was carried out on Compressive Testing Machine (CTM). During the testing period of cubes when control specimens were tested, it was found that control specimen undergo sudden collapse as compared to bacterial cube. This major property was noted. On some specimens, minor cracks were observed and efforts were made to open the crack but the specimen broke and on none of the specimens cracks were induced. It is observed that the concentration 108 cells/ml proves more effective in sealing both cracks and in increase of compressive strength of concrete.
Shardul S. Pawar, Aniket M. Rishi , Rahul A. Bhogare
Colloidal suspension of fine nanometer size particles into the working fluids is known as nanofluids. Nanofluids are potential heat transfer fluids with enhanced thermo physical properties and heat transfer and heat transfer performance. Heat rejection requirement are continuously increasing and cooling has become the top technical challenge. Hence nanofluids are became topic of intense research due to their enhanced thermal properties and their heat transfer application. This newly introduced category of cooling fluids containing ultrafine nanoparticles (0-100nm) has displayed fascinating behavior during experiments including increased thermal conductivity and augmented heat transfer coefficient compared to conventional working fluids. Latest up to date literatures on the applications and challenges in terms of PhD and Master thesis, journal articles, conference proceedings, reports and web materials have been reviewed and reported. This review provides an overview of nanofluids along with properties applications and challenges in the automobile industries.
Magneto Rheological (MR) fluid is the type of smart fluid whose flow properties can be varied by applying magnetic field which can be used to enhance the properties related to stress. MR fluids are basically non-colloidal suspensions of polarizable particles having a size on the order of a few microns. MR fluids are used in various applications including dampers, brakes, clutches, polishing devices and hydraulic valves and have a very promising potential future; some of them have been used commercially in engineering applications such as automobiles, polishing machines, exercise equipment due to quick response and no effect of temperature. Latest up to date literatures on the applications and challenges in terms of PhD and Master thesis, journal articles, conference proceedings, reports and web materials have been reviewed and reported. This review provides an overview of MR fluids along with its properties, preparation, components and applications.
In this paper, forced convective heat transfer in a water based nanofluid has experimentally been compared to that of pure water in an automotive radiator. Three different concentrations of nanofluids 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% by volume have been prepared by the addition of CuOnano-particles into the water. The test liquid flows through the radiator consisted of 34 vertical tubes with elliptical cross section and air makes a cross flow inside the tube bank with constant speed. Liquid flow rate has been changed in the range of 100-600 LPH to have the fully turbulent regime. Additionally, the effect of fluid inlet temperature to the radiator on heat transfer coefficient has also been analysed by varying the temperature in the range of 55°C-75°C. Results demonstrate that increasing the fluid circulating rate can improve the heat transfer performance while the fluid inlet temperature to the radiator has trivial effects. Meanwhile, application of nanofluid with low concentrations can enhance heat transfer efficiency up to 45% in comparison with pure water. The higher heat transfer coefficients obtained by using nanofluid instead of water that allows the working fluid in the automobile radiator to be cooler. The addition of nanoparticles to the water has the potential to improve automotive and heavy-duty engine cooling rates or equally causes to remove the engine heat with reduced-size coolant system. Smaller coolant systems result in smaller and lighter radiators, which in turn benefit almost every aspect of car and truck performance and lead to increased fuel economy.
Shrikant Shyamkant Madiwalea and Virendra Bhojwanib
The necessity of viable alternative fuels is very important because of fast depletion of fossil fuels. . The transportation sector consumed diesel fuel at a very larger scale. It has been concluded in many research paper that vegetable oils can satisfy the need of alternative fuels because they can be produced from the plants which are grown locally in rural areas .In comparison with non edible oils vegetable oils from different feedstock such as cotton seed, peanut, sunflower, rape ,jatropha , soyabene , karanja , mustard , linseed and coconut have been investigated in many parts of the world. The review presented in this paper focus on the production technologies of biodiesel from different feedstock, properties of blend of biodiesel, and performance and emission analysis of biodiesel in Compression Ignition (CI) engine. The paper also demark the feasibility of biodiesel or blends of biodiesel as a economic and viable alternative fuels for CI engines.
Nowadays wireless sensor networks (WSN) have achieved more popularity due to its various applications in day to day life. Security mechanism should be effective for it. As they are widely used in civilian and also in military applications, the pre -distribution mechanism is also very effective. Key pre-distribution is kind of challenging task in WSN because neighbors of a node are unknown to each other after deployment. For communication to be secure there must be a common secure key or a common secure key path must be present. There are various methods are available for key pre-distribution in WSN. These methods are having their own advantages and disadvantages related to memory efficiency, scalability, communication overhead etc. The proposed scheme uses the tree based structure for key generation and pre-distribution of sensor nodes. It provides highest level of connectivity and scalability. If two nodes have already establish a connection between them and a node is added in the network then the information is updated without changing the information of those two deployed nodes.
Reinforced Concrete Multistory buildings have become need of growing population of India. As far as its performances to withstand natural disasters like earthquakes is concerned in multistory buildings. open first storey construction is highly undesirable in seismically active areas. From past experiences typically Bhuj Earthquake it is verified but in urban cities need of soft storey is demanded for parking of vehicles and cannot be omitted. So to meet these demands and also to sustain in severe disasters like earthquakes use of dampers in buildings has seen to be effectively performing. This paper focus on performance of building in presence of vibrations with and without dampers. Specially Tuned Mass Dampers.